Now, I would like to share some sunnat practices during Muharam...
1. Fasting during the month
The Holy Prophet e has said:
أفضل الصيام بعد شهر رمضان شهر الله المحرم
The best fasts after the fasts of Ramadan are those of the month of Muharram.
Although the fasts of the month of Muharram are not obligatory, yet, the one who fasts in these days out of his own will and choice is entitled to a great reward by Allah Almighty. The Hadith cited above signifies that the fasts of the month of Muharram are most rewardable ones among the Nafl fasts i.e. the fasts one observes out of his own choice without being obligatory on him.
The hadith does not mean that the award promised for fasts of Muharram can be achieved only by fasting for the whole month. On the contrary, each fast during this month has merit. Therefore, one should avail of this opportunity as much as he can.
2. The day of 'Ashurah'
Although the month of Muharram is a sanctified month as a whole, yet, the 10th day of Muharram is the most sacred among all its days. The day is Named Ashurah'.
According to the Holy companion Ibn 'Abbas t. The Holy Prophet e , when migrated to Madinah, found that the Jews of Madinah used to fast on the 10th day of Muharram. They said that it was the day on which the Holy Prophet Musa (Moses) u and his followers crossed the Red Sea miraculously and the Pharaoh was drowned in its water. On hearing this from the Jews, the Holy Prophet e said, "We are more closely related to Musa than you" and directed the Muslims to fast on the day of 'Ashura'. (Abu Dawood)
It is also reported in a number of authentic traditions that in the beginning, fasting on the day of 'Ahura' was obligatory for the Muslims. It was later that the fasts of Ramadan were made obligatory and the fast on the day of 'Ashura' was made optional. Sayyidah 'A'ishah رضي الله عنها has said:
فلما قدم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة صامه وأمر بصيامه. فلما فرض رمضان كان هو الفريضة وترك عاشوراء، من شاء صامه ومن شاء تركه ()
When the Holy Prophet e came to Madinah, he fasted on the day of 'Ashura' and directed the people to fast it. But when the fasts of Ramadan were made obligatory, the obligation of fasting was confined to Ramadan and the obligatory nature of the fast of 'Ashura' was abandoned, One can fast on this day, if he so wills, or can avoid fasting, if he so wills.
However, the Holy Prophet e used to fast on the day of 'Ashura' even after the fasting in Ramadan was made obligatory. Abdullah ibn Mas'ud t reports that the Holy Prophet e preferred the fast of 'Ashura' to the fast of other days and preferred the fast of Ramadan to the fast of 'Ashura'. (Bukhari and Muslim)
In short, it is established through a number of authentic ahadith that fasting on the day of 'Ashura' is Sunnah of the Holy Prophet e and makes one entitled to a great reward.
According to another hadith, it is more advisable that the fast of Ashura should either be prefixed or suffixed by another fast. It means that one should fast two days: the 9th and 10th of Muharram or the 10th and llth of it. The reason of this additional fast as mentioned by the Holy Prophet e is that the Jews used to fast on the day of 'Ashura alone, and the Holy Prophet e wanted to distinguish the Islamic-way of fasting from that of Jews. Therefore, he advised the Muslims to add another fast to that of Ashura'.
Some traditions signify another feature of the day of 'Ashura, According to these traditions one should be more generous to his family by providing more food to them on this day as compared to other days. These traditions are not very authentic according to the science of hadith. Yet, some Scholars like Baihaqi and Ibn Hibban have accepted them as reliable.
3.Recite 70 times of 'حَسبنا الله و نعم الوکیل نعم المولی و نعم النصیر'